Relationship between sarcopenia and the serum creatinine/cystatin C ratio in Japanese rural community-dwelling older adults

Hiroshi Kusunoki, Shotaro Tsuji, Yosuke Wada, Mayuka Fukai, Koutatsu Nagai, Masako Itoh, Kyoko Sano, Kayoko Tamaki, Yoshinori Ohta, Manabu Amano, Hatsuo Maeda, Yoko Hasegawa, Hiromitsu Kishimoto, Soji Shimomura, Hiroo Yoshikawa, Ken Shinmura



Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in skeletal muscle volume and function, is associated with negative clinical and socioeconomic outcomes in elderly people. Clinical biomarkers to diagnose sarcopenia that can be quantified in a reliable, and cost- effective manner, are needed. We investigated whether the creatinine (Cr) /cystatin C (CysC) ratio is correlated with muscle volume and physical function in Japanese community-dwelling elderly subjects.


The present study included 213 men aged 73.2±6.2 years and 464 women aged 72.4±5.5 years from a rural area in the Hyogo prefecture of Japan. To evaluate whether the Cr/CysC ratio is correlated with sarcopenia criteria in elderly individuals with preserved kidney function, we excluded subjects with estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <45.


The prevalence of sarcopenia diagnosed according to the AWGS criteria was 2.8% in men and 3.4% in women. The Cr/CysC ratio correlated with skeletal mass index (r = 0.49, p <0.0001), skeletal muscle mass (r = 0.53, p <0.0001), grip power (r = 0.59, p <0.0001), knee extension muscle strength (r = 0.49, p <0.0001), normal gait speed (r = 0.18, p <0.0001), and maximal gait speed (r = 0.32, p <0.0001). A negative correlation between the Cr/CysC ratio and, body fat mass (r = -0.20, p <0.0001) and percentage of body fat mass (r = -0.39, p <0.0001) was observed. In a multiple regression analysis, Cr/CysC was also found to be significantly positively correlated with each component of the sarcopenia criteria.


Even in elderly individuals with preserved kidney function, the Cr/CysC ratio was positively correlated with muscle volume and physical function and negatively correlated with body fat mass. Therefore, the Cr/CysC ratio might be a useful biomarker to predict sarcopenia.


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